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Thijs Feryn:
What are Type Errors in PHP 7?
Jul 15, 2016 @ 09:58:19

In a new post to his site Thijs Feryn has shared an overview of the different types of type errors that can pop up in PHP 7. This includes both a text-based and video based versions depending on your preference.

PHP 7 has a concept called Type Errors. These errors are thrown on a type mismatch when interacting with functions. They can be caught just like exceptions. I created a video that explains the situation. This blog post goes into more detail and has some code examples.

The post gets into the details of the type errors including topics like:

  • new type hints that were introduced
  • how you can manually throw type errors
  • when PHP itself would throw the errors
  • type coercion

There's also a brief section about strict typing and how that changes what errors PHP might throw in your scripts.

tagged: type error php7 introduction overview video tutorial

Link: https://blog.feryn.eu/type-errors-php-7/

QaFoo Blog:
When to Abstract?
May 18, 2016 @ 10:12:18

On the QaFoo blog they've posted an article that shares some of their thoughts on "when to abstract" in your code - essentially finding that point where abstracting out functionality makes sense.

One of the most difficult challenges in a developers life is finding the "right" abstraction, or at least the best one given the current circumstances. The core problem is that abstraction is a bet on the future development of the software and we know that future is volatile. The circumstances will change, so will the view on the best abstraction change.

But there is another dimension which influences this decision: What kind of software are you developing?

They start off by defining three different types of projects (internal, library and adaptable) and move into how this type changes when/how you abstract things in your code. They give a brief summary for each type and when it usually makes sense, including steps to take (concrete first, then abstract).

tagged: abstract code library internal adaptable type opinion concrete

Link: https://qafoo.com/blog/084_when_to_abstract.html

Rob Allen:
Determining the image type of a file
Mar 04, 2016 @ 11:08:14

In his latest post Rob Allen shows a handy way, making use of the http://php.net/getimagesize function, to determine the image type of a file based on header information returned.

One thing I learnt recently which I probably should have known already is that getimagesize() returns more than just the width and height of the image. [...] However, getimagesize() also returns up to 5 more pieces of information. Interestingly, the data array is a mix of indexed elements and named elements

He gives an example of the output from the function and shows how, using data from the returned array, you can compare constants (IMAGETYPE_JPEG, IMAGETYPE_GIF, IMAGETYPE_PNG) to determine what the image type is. This is a better option than relying on the extension of the file as that can be easily faked.

tagged: image type determine tutorial getimagesize constant

Link: https://akrabat.com/determining-the-image-type-of-a-file-with-getimagesize/

Chris Fidao:
Laravel and Content Negotiation
Jan 18, 2016 @ 11:57:35

Chris Fidao has a quick post to his site looking at content negotiation in Laravel apps using some of the framework's own built-in functionality.

Here's a little bit about content negotiation. An HTTP client, such as your browser, or perhaps jQuery's ajax method, can set an Accept header as part of an HTTP request. [...] This header is meant to tell the server what content types it is willing to accept.

He starts with a bit of illustration as to what the Accept header is and what kinds of values it supports (and how it looks as a HTTP header). He then shows how to check the Accept header value inside the current request. He also shows the "shortcut" Laravel provides to test if the Accept header specifically references JSON with the wantsJson method. He also mentions the accepts and prefers methods for checks that need to be a bit more in-depth.

tagged: content type accepts negotiation wantsjson prefers

Link: http://fideloper.com/laravel-content-negotiation

Evert Pot:
Strict typing in PHP 7 - poll results
Jan 15, 2016 @ 11:19:54

Evert Pot has shared the results of a poll he recently set up on Twitter asking PHP developers if they planned to make use of the strict typing functionality in PHP 7 in their applications. Unsurprisingly, the majority voted that they will with a more undecided audience coming in second.

Type hinting comes in two flavors: strict and non-strict. This is the result of a long battle between two camps, a strict and non-strict camp, which in the end was resolved by this compromise.

Now by default PHP acts in non-strict mode, and if you'd like to opt-in to strict-mode, you'll need to start every PHP file with this statement. [...] So I was curious about everyone and whether you will be using strict mode or not. Results are in.

According to those that voted 46% were completely in favor of using the declare statement to enable strict typing in their PHP 7 code by default. The next group, the "undecided" were at 26% with "no way" and "what is that?" coming in farther down the list. He also mentions a package that's in the works from Justin Martin that would automatically add the declare statement to your code in the desired location(s). Additionally there's an extension in development from Joe Watkins that will do the same thing but making it a bit more automatic.

tagged: php7 strict type declare poll results usage composer package extension

Link: https://evertpot.com/strict-types-pollresults/

SitePoint PHP Blog:
Flyweight Design Pattern and Immutability: A Perfect Match
Oct 22, 2015 @ 11:56:32

The SitePoint PHP blog has a tutorial they've posted (from author Andrew Carter) looking at the Flyweight design pattern and immutability, how they're a "perfect match". The flyweight pattern makes it possible to reuse objects after they've been created with one requirement: they must be immutable.

The fundamental principle behind the flyweight pattern is that memory can be saved by remembering objects after they have been created. Then, if the same objects need to be used again, resources do not have to be wasted recreating them. [...] You can think of the flyweight pattern as a modification to a conventional object factory.

One important feature of flyweight objects is that they are immutable. This means that they cannot be changed once they have been constructed. This is because our factory can only guarantee that it has remembered the correct object if it can also guarantee that the object it originally created has not been modified.

The post includes code examples of how to implement the pattern with a simple File object that fetches data from a file when created. He then creates the factory class, with a getFile method that takes in the path and creates the immutable File object from it. It's then stored in an internal array for potential reuse later. He also talks about how the pattern could be useful for handling enumeration objects and how you can use it to build out "type" objects.

tagged: flyweight designpattern immutable object factory tutorial type enumeration

Link: http://www.sitepoint.com/flyweight-design-pattern-immutability-perfect-match/

Zend Developer Zone:
A new type of PHP, part 2: Scalar types
Sep 16, 2015 @ 09:09:26

The Zend Developer Zone has posted the second part of their series (from community member Larry Garfield) about scalar types in PHP 7, one of many features in this "coming soon" release. You can find part one of the series here.

In our last installment, we talked about the benefits of more robust variable typing in PHP 7, and specifically the new support for typed return values. That is already a big boon to the maintainability of our code, but PHP 7 goes a step further. So far, we’ve only talked about typing against classes and interfaces. We’ve been able to type against those (and arrays) for years. PHP 7, however, adds the ability to type against scalar values too, such as int, string, and float.

But wait. In PHP, most primitives are interchangeable. [...] Much the same as return types, scalar types offer greater clarity within the language as well as the ability to catch more bugs earlier. That, in turn, can help encourage more robust code in the first place, which benefits everybody.

He starts by looking at the four new types that have been added in PHP 7: int, float, string, and bool. He includes a code example showing each of them in use on class interfaces and functions. He steps through the code example, explaining how the return type checking is handled for each instance. He also talks about how return type hinting can also benefit static analysis tools, allowing them to potentially find bugs in return values easier than before. Finally he covers strict mode, the method for enforcing types in your code and preventing PHP from doing any "magic" type switching for you. He also includes a code example of this functionality and how, with it enabled, it would have caught an error in his example on a integer vs string input.

tagged: scalar type hints introduction php7 strict example

Link: http://devzone.zend.com/6622/a-new-type-of-php-part-2-scalar-types/

SitePoint PHP Blog:
Drupal 8 Custom Plugin Types
Sep 14, 2015 @ 11:08:06

The SitePoint PHP blog has posted an overview from Daniel Sipos covering custom plugin types in Drupal 8 and how you can combine them (custom forms) with node entities.

In this article series of two parts, we will use this system to build a feature that allows the use of custom forms together with node entities. After we’re done, we’ll be able to do the following: configure node bundles to use one of multiple form types to be displayed together with the node display and easily define new form types by extending from a sensible base class. [...] We will get started by creating our custom plugin type. T

He starts with the plugin manager, showing you how to create a custom ReusableFormsManager in the module to set up the manager and add it to the system. He then sets up the plugin interface the manager is expecting to find. This piece defines methods to get the name of the plugin and to build the form. He then creates a simple ReusableForm annotation class and builds out the plugin base. This base class includes a form builder object used to build and output the custom form. Finally he gets into building the form and its matching interface. It's a simple "Contact Us" kind of form that outputs three fields (first name, last name, email) and a "Submit" button.

tagged: drupal8 custom plugin type tutorial form contactus

Link: http://www.sitepoint.com/drupal-8-custom-plugin-types/

Alejandro Celaya:
Working with custom column types in Doctrine. Enums.
Jul 30, 2015 @ 08:37:45

Alejandro Celaya has a post to his site showing you how to work with custom types in Doctrine, more specifically with the "enum" type.

Doctrine is currently the most used ORM in PHP. It makes it very easy to work with databases in an object oriented way. It comes with a set of built-in column types that map database types with PHP types. For example, the datetime column type, persists the value of an entity column as a datetime in the database and handles it as a DateTime object when the entity is hydrated.

Type conversions work both ways, so column types take care of casting database to PHP types and vice versa. In this article I'm going to explain how to define custom column types so that we can persist our own objects into the database and hydrate them back.

He points out that, while PHP itself lacks the "enum" data type, you can simulate it with a library like this. He uses this library to create a custom Doctrine object type that mimic enums in the getting and setting of a value to one of a few options. In this case it's values representing the CRUD methods. He shows the code to link the Type back to the Action which then gives it understanding of what the valid enum values can be. He also points out another package that he published recently that takes some of the work out of creating the boilerplate code for the enum.

tagged: package action tutorial enum type doctrine custom library

Link: http://blog.alejandrocelaya.com/2015/07/28/working-with-custom-column-types-in-doctrine-enums/

SitePoint PHP Blog:
Record Retrieval and Pagination in Bolt CMS
Jun 02, 2015 @ 12:29:59

The SitePoint PHP blog has a new tutorial posted showing you how to set up pagination in the results provided by the Bolt CMS that includes handling to grab content from the database and display the results.

Bolt is a lightweight CMS built on Silex with Symfony components that’s fast, easy, and fun to develop with. My recent affinity for Bolt has turned it into my CMS of choice as I make a conscious effort to choose wisely and step away from bloated frameworks. Previously, I gave a very detailed insight into what it’s like developing with Bolt. Today, we’re going to break down a very popular task into steps in order to accomplish it with ease.

He starts with an installation of the Homestead Improved virtual machine and checks out a new copy of Bolt. He sets up a basic Bootstrap-based theme, including header and footer partial views. He then shows how to create "contenttypes" and fetch the current content records. He updates the Twig template to show the results and integrates the simple pagination. He then creates the single page version to view the content and "previous" and "next" links to accompany it.

tagged: bolt cms tutorial pagination content type management silex

Link: http://www.sitepoint.com/record-retrieval-pagination-bolt-cms/