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Mark Baker:
Closures, Anonymous Classes and an alternative approach to Test Mocking (Part 3)
Sep 19, 2017 @ 11:58:39

Mark Baker has posted the third part of his series looking at an alternative way to handle mocking in the tests for your PHP application. In this latest part of the series he shows how to modify one of PHPUnit's own mocking examples to use an anonymous class.

I have heard people say that you shouldn’t test abstract classes or traits, only the concrete classes that implement or use them. I don’t follow that approach: unit testing is all about testing in isolation from anything that might affect those tests. Testing a concrete class that implements an abstract one, or uses a trait, means that the abstract class or trait is no longer fully isolated, but is being tested within the scope of the whole of that concrete class. We should still always test concrete classes as well; but we should also test the abstract classes and traits as individual units.

So just how do we test something that cannot be instantiated on its own?

He shares one tactic that some developers use - a class designed only for testing - but suggests that this "pollutes" the codebase. Instead he shows how to replace mocking for traits and abstract classes with an anonymous class that's more "disposable". He also shows how to modify this approach to handle calling protected methods in the class the anonymous class extends.

tagged: closure anonymous class alternative mock tutorial part3 series

Link: https://markbakeruk.net/2017/09/18/closures-anonymous-classes-and-an-alternative-approach-to-test-mocking-part-3/

Mark Baker:
Closures, Anonymous Classes and an alternative approach to Test Mocking (Part 2)
Aug 11, 2017 @ 10:44:19

Mark Baker has posted the second part of his series covering the use of closures and anonymous classes as an alternative approach to mocking in your unit tests. In part one he introduced some of the basic concepts behind their use and in this latest post he focuses on "different approach to using an Anonymous Class to verify the values of object properties".

The last time I posted here, I was writing about Anonymous Functions and how they can be bound to any object (or class) to execute as though they are a method within the scope of that class (Closure Binding as an alternative to “use” variables); and in the first article in this series, I looked at using a Closure to access private and protected properties of an object.

I was going to write this particular article about using simple Anonymous Classes to create test doubles for Unit Testing – and may well return to that topic in a future article in the series – but Matt Brunt has written a good post on that topic already, so instead I’m going to focus on a different approach to using an Anonymous Class to verify the values of object properties that we otherwise couldn’t see directly when testing a class.

He goes on to talk about some ideas from the Java ecosystem around nested classes and scoping. He then shows how, with closure binding, the same kind of effect can be created in PHP testing. He includes the code for an example of a class that coverts distance measurements. He then introduces his "SpyMaster" utility class that "infiltrates" the class under test and attaches the closure providing the needed point for testing. He finishes up the post talking about this functionality and how the technique can be used in many places, not just testing class constructors.

tagged: closure anonymous class alternative mock tutorial part2 series

Link: https://markbakeruk.net/2017/07/30/closures-anonymous-classes-and-an-alternative-approach-to-test-mocking-part-2/

Matthew Weier O'Phinney:
Using Anonymous Classes to Write Middleware
Apr 03, 2017 @ 11:22:48

Matthew Weier O'Phinney, lead developer on the Zend Framework project, has written up a new post for his site showing how to use anonymous classes to write middleware for your applications (several frameworks support the concept of middleware these days).

I faced an interesting question recently with regards to middleware: What happens when we go from a convention-based to a contract-based approach when programming?

Convention-based approaches usually allow for duck-typing; with middleware, it means you can write PHP callables - usually closures - and just expect them to work.

Contract-based approaches use interfaces. I think you can see where this is going.

He starts off looking at some of the currently popular methods for creating middleware basic them off of either the PSR-7 standard or the proposed PSR-15 HTTP middleware, each with code examples to illustrate. The post then gets to the point with a look at anonymous class-based middleware and some of the advantages they provide. He refactors both a PSR-7 middleware and a closure-based middleware over to PSR-15 using this method.

tagged: middleware anonymous class psr7 psr15 closure tutorial

Link: https://mwop.net/blog/2017-03-30-anonymous-class-middleware.html

Mark Baker:
Closures, Anonymous Classes and an alternative approach to Test Mocking (Part 1)
Mar 06, 2017 @ 11:12:04

On his site Mark Baker has posted the first part of a series of articles covering the use of closures and anonymous classes in testing and mocking. In this first part of the series he focuses on introducing some of the basics of the topics to be covered and what the closures/anonymous classes can replace.

Since their first introduction with PHP 5.3, Closures have proven an incredibly useful feature for writing simple callback code, making it cleaner and more intuitive. Anonymous Functions can be used inline for many of the array functions or assigned to a variable as a Lambda that can be referenced many times in different places in your code.

[...] But this isn’t an article about the differences between Anonymous and Lambda Functions and Closures [...] Instead, I want to take a look at binding Closures to objects as a first step to demonstrating an alternative approach to test mocking.

He goes on to talk about the mocking the PHPUnit already includes, other libraries that help with mocking/stubs but then pushing those off for the focus of the article - the use of the closures/anonymous classes. He gets into some details about how PHP handles closures internally and how to bind a closure to a class or object instance (via the bindTo function). He then attaches this to an object and shows how to create a "snooper" to work with an object, perform some processing and return some values from it.

tagged: closure anonymous function tutorial testing unittest phpunit snooper

Link: https://markbakeruk.net/2017/03/05/closures-anonymous-classes-test-mocking-1/

Matthieu Napoli:
Using anonymous classes to write simpler tests
Jan 24, 2017 @ 10:33:18

In a recent post to his site Matthieu Napoli shows you how to use the recently added anonymous classes functionality to help make your unit tests simpler. Anonymous classes allow for the on-demand creation of class instances without the need for the predefined class being required.

Anonymous classes were added to PHP 7. This article intends to show how useful they can be for writing tests.

He breaks it down into the three most useful places he uses them in his tests:

  • mocking classes to make it simpler to test method output
  • spies looking at properties in the mock class
  • fixture classes to help with needs such as reflection tests

Code examples are provided for each of the examples, especially the final point there.

tagged: anonymous class testing unittest mock spy fixture

Link: http://mnapoli.fr/anonymous-classes-in-tests/

Mark Baker:
Anonymous Class Factory – The Results are in
May 13, 2016 @ 12:15:17

Following up on his previous post about anonymous classes and a factory to generate them, Mark Baker has posted about the results of some additional research he's done on the topic and four options he's come up with.

A week or so ago, I published an article entitled “In Search of an Anonymous Class Factory” about my efforts at writing a “factory” for PHP7’s new Anonymous Classes (extending a named concrete base class, and assigning Traits to it dynamically); and about how I subsequently discovered the expensive memory demands of my original factory code, and then rewrote it using a different and (hopefully) more memory-efficient approach.

Since then, I’ve run some tests for memory usage and timings to assess just how inefficient my first attempt at the factory code was, and whether the new version of the factory really was better than the original.

His four options that finally worked somewhat as he'd wanted were:

  • A factory that returns an instance of a concrete class using the traits he wants
  • A factory that returns an anonymous class extending a concrete class that uses the traits
  • His original Anonymous Class factory and extending the result with the traits
  • His second version of the Anonymous Class factory that creates the instance, caches it and returns a clone

He also includes the code he used to run the tests of each factory method and shares some of the resulting benchmarks (with a few surprises).

tagged: anonymous class factory results options benchmark

Link: https://markbakeruk.net/2016/05/12/anonymous-class-factory-the-results-are-in/

Mark Baker:
In Search of an Anonymous Class Factory
May 03, 2016 @ 10:49:25

In a new post to his site Mark Baker take a look at anonymous classes, a new feature in PHP 7, and a challenge he took on to figure out how to apply traits to them at runtime.

One of the more interesting new features introduced to PHP with the arrival of version 7 is Anonymous Classes. [...] Then back in January (as I was waiting for my flight to the continent for PHPBenelux) I was intrigued by a request to find a way of dynamically applying Traits to a class at run-time. With time on my hands as I was sitting in the airport, I considered the problem.

His first idea was to build an anonymous class, extending the requested class that would come along with the traits/properties/functionality of the original class. He includes some of the code he tried to implement this solution and ultimately figured out that a factory would be a good approach to creating the structure. After doing some research he found a way to create the factory using some eval magic. However, this wasn't "the end of the story" as he found out some other interesting things about anonymous classes (such as the fact that they're linked to only one instance of a class, making them less reusable).

tagged: anonymous class php7 factory eval example

Link: https://markbakeruk.net/2016/05/03/in-search-of-an-anonymous-class-factory/

Andrew Podner:
Closures, Lambdas, and Anonymous Functions
Feb 21, 2013 @ 13:02:13

Andrew Podner has posted an introduction to a concept in PHP that may not be easy to immediately grasp for someone relatively new to the language - the idea of lambdas and closures.

Beginning with PHP 5.3, the anonymous function, became available to developers as a means of improving flexibility and increasing the number of tools at our fingertips to build powerful PHP applications. What I have been seeing a lot of as I read through documentation is more frequent use of terms like lambda, closure, or anonymous function, and sometime the terms are often used interchangeably, so let’s take a deeper look into what all of these things are and what differences, if any, there are between them.

The post looks at lambdas first, defining them as "functions without names" that can be assigned to objects or called inline when needed. Next is closures, and it's noted that, in PHP, there's really not much difference. They both also allow for use of the "use" statement to import values into the function's local scope. He mentions the "$this" update that came in PHP 5.4 and includes some arguments against their use too.

tagged: closure lambda anonymous function introduction

Link:

PHP Tip-a-Day:
PHP Tutorial: Convoluted Code - Combining Ternary Operators and Anonymous Functions
May 30, 2012 @ 10:09:40

On the PHP Tip-a-Day site Greg Bulmash shares a bit of "convoluted code" that could potentially cause confusion in the future maintenance of your application - combining ternary with anonymous functions.

Following on yesterday's post about chaining if statements without brackets on a single line, I tried to explore other ways to perform this "test if the variable is set, then do a comparison if it is" logic. I created one of the most convoluted lines of code I've ever written. It's no SQL join that spans 5 whiteboards, but it's pretty unreadable.

His example uses not just one ternary comparison, but nested ones with the anonymous function as the first condition. He points out that, if you're not careful with this method and make both sides anonymous functions, you could be in for a "cannot be converted to string" error on the closure side.

I'm sure there might be a very good reason to put two anonymous functions in a ternary operator, but I can't think of one at the moment. It's a fairly ugly proposition.
tagged: ternary nested anonymous function closure compare

Link:

Gonzalo Ayuso's Blog:
Building a small microframework with PHP
Aug 23, 2011 @ 09:48:27

In investigating microframeworks and some of the offerings out there Gonzalo Ayuso has done a little exploring of his own. He's worked up a basic microframework and shared it in a new post as a sort of academic exercise.

Nowadays microframewors are very popular. Since Blake Mizerany created Sinatra (Ruby), we have a lot of Sinatra clones in PHP world. Probably the most famous (and a really good one) is Silex. But we also have several ones, such as Limonade, GluePHP and Slim. Those frameworks are similar.

He looks at how several of these frameworks handle routing and setup, mostly using the closures/anonymous function callbacks available in PHP 5.3. His simple example framework does some basic URI handling to find the requested module, class and function (action) to call. You can even define the output format from options like json, txt, css, js and jsonp. A sample "controller" is included with a "Hello world" and there's a mention of some other options he's exploring including Twig and Assetic integration.

tagged: microframework exercise routing callback anonymous function

Link: