On the Script-Tutorials.com site they've posted a lengthy tutorial that covers many common design patterns - 23 of them - and how they could be implemented in PHP.
Today we are going to talk about design patterns in web development, more precisely – in PHP. Experienced developers are probably familiar with this, but this article will be extremely useful for all novice developers. So, what is it – design patterns? Design Patterns aren’t analysis patterns, they are not descriptions of common structures like linked lists, nor are they particular application or framework designs. In fact, design patterns are “descriptions of communicating objects and classes that are customized to solve a general design problem in a particular context.” In other words, Design patterns provide a generic reusable solution to the programming problems that we encounter every day.
[...] Design patterns not only make software development faster, but also encapsulate big ideas in a simpler way. Also, be careful not to use them in wrong places in order to avoid unpleasant situations. In addition to the theory, we also give you the most abstract and simple examples of design patterns.
The tutorial starts with a table listing out the category (purpose) of the pattern, the design pattern name and some of the aspects of it that could vary depending on interpretation. The article then goes through each of the 23 patterns and includes the code to implement them. There's not much in the way of description about each but there are one or two sentences about its primary use.