While working on an issue with debugging a script of his via XDebug, Derick Rethans was reminded of something that is an integral part of the PHP language - its two phase compiler.
During the first pass, it will find out to which opcode it needs to jump in the jump instructions. However, the PHP engine (and Xdebug) expects a memory address to jump to while executing your script. In the second pass, the compiler will then go over the generated opcodes and calculate the memory address to jump to from the jumps to opcode numbers.
Because of the way that XDebug was handling the checks (with the user-defined error handler) and how the opcodes inside of PHP are handled, the user-defined handler happened in between the first and second phases and the latter run couldn't find the resources it was looking for, thus the crash.