I will install both Suhosin parts in this tutorial, the Suhosin patch (for which we need to recompile PHP5) and the Suhosin PHP extension. To see what Suhosin can do, please refer to http://www.hardened-php.net/suhosin/a_feature_list.html. The features of the Suhosin patch are listed under Engine Protection (only with patch); all the other features come with the Suhosin extension.
It's (technically) a three step process, but there's lots of smaller steps under each one. There's also some screenshots of a phpinfo() page to show the results of each of the steps.